The Types Of Bricks Used In Building Construction
Bricks are considered as the perfect structural components for construction & civil engineering projects due to their longevity and greater compressive strength. In this civil exclusive civil engineering article, you will be familiar with different types of bricks and its usages.
Categories of Bricks
Depending on the manufacturing method and the materials utilized, the types of bricks houses are categorized as follow :-
- Sun-dried or unburnt bricks
- Burnt bricks
Sun-dried or Unburnt Bricks
These types of bricks used in building construction do not last long and mainly utilized for temporary structures.
There are three steps for making unburnt bricks which range from the production of clay, molding, and drying.
Once the molding is completed, dry the bricks in the sunlight rather baking them. So, they have less strength and less water resistance and fire resistance capacity. These types of bricks should not be recommended for any permanent structures.
To produce burnt clay bricks, the molded clay is provided into a kiln and then heated with fire.
According to qualities, the burnt bricks are categorized as follow :
- First-class bricks
- Second class bricks
- Third class bricks
- Fourth class bricks
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First Class Bricks
First-class bricks contain good quality with regards to other types of bricks. They are molded with table-molding and burnt in heavy kilns. So, these first-class bricks have a standard shape, piercing edges, and smooth surfaces. They are long-lasting and contain greater strength. They are ideal for permanent structures.
These types of bricks are expensive as compared to other classes. The standard size is 19 x 9 x 9 cm . Its compressive strength is not lower than 140 kg/cm2. After submerging them in water for 24 hours, they do not absorb in excess of 20% of water for 24 hours. They are suitable for all sorts of construction in the exterior walls as well as for flooring.
Second Class Bricks
Second class bricks come with modest quality and burnt in kiln. They are molded through the ground-molding method and as a result they lack smooth surfaces and sharp edges. The shape of the bricks is also uneven because of the roughness in the ground. These are long-lasting and contain good strength.
Smooth plastering should be applied on the brick structure. Its compressive strength should not be lower than 70 kg/cm2. These types of bricks are recommended for external work and then plastering should be provided. They can also be utilized for interior works but not for flooring.
Third Class Bricks
Third class bricks contain weak quality and suitable for temporary structures like unburnt bricks. These should not be used for rainy areas. They belong to ground-molded type bricks which are burnt in clamps. The surface of these bricks is not even and they contain unfair edges. Its compressive strength varies among 35 – 70 kg/cm2 and the absorption rate is among 22 – 25 percent.
Fourth Class Bricks
Fourth class bricks belong to very poor quality bricks and should not be applied for the structure. After being crushed, they can be used as a coarse aggregate material in road construction, foundations, and floors. They are built up by overburning and due to this, they are overheated and become breakable. They are not recommended for construction works.
Depending On the Materials Used :
Fly Ash Brick
These types of bricks are created with fly ash and water. These bricks contain strong properties as compared to clay bricks and superior resistance capacity against freeze-thaw cycles. They include a high concentration of calcium oxide that is a constituent in cement production, thus it is also described as self-cementing brick.
Fly ash bricks are lightweight and thus it minimize the self-weight of structures. They have greater fire insulation, strength, regular sizes for improved joints and plaster, lower water penetration, do not need soaking prior to be used in masonry construction.
Concrete, bricks are developed with concrete having components as cement, sand, coarse aggregates and water. These bricks are produced in the required sizes. They are built up at a construction site without adequate quantities of mortar.
The concrete bricks are suitable for the construction of masonry and framed buildings, facades, fences, and provides exceptional aesthetic look.
According to the structure, shape, size, and manufacturing methods concrete blocks are subcategorized into 8 types which range from Solid Concrete Blocks, Hollow Concrete Blocks, Engineering Bricks, Sand Lime or Calcium Silicate Bricks, Porotherm Smart Bricks Or Eco Bricks, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC Blocks), CLC is called Cellular Light Weight blocks, Interlocking bricks etc.