How Many Types Of Beam In Civil Engineering?
A beam is a horizontal structural element that travels horizontally and is designed to bear vertical loads that are applied to the building frame. The load for the types of beams in structure is distributed to the ends of the beam and then transferred to the column, wall, and posts on both sides of the beam. It can only bear weights applied laterally to the beam's axis.
Different types of beams in construction are classified based on the following conditions.
- Based on Construction Materials
- Based on Loads & Supports
- Bases on Shape of Cross Section
- Based on Equilibrium Conditions
- Based on Geometry
- Based on Construction Methods
Types of Beams In Construction
Different types of beams can be simply supported, which means they are supported on both ends but can rotate freely.
Fixed: Both ends are supported and fixed to prevent spinning.
Overhanging: one or both ends of the supports are overhanging.
Continuous means that it spans more than two supports.
Cantilevered means just one end is supported.
They can be statically determinate (i.e., their reactions can be solved with equilibrium conditions) or statically indeterminate (i.e., they can't be solved using equilibrium conditions).
Beams were traditionally made of wood, although they can now be made of steel, concrete, or composite materials.
There are many different cross-section shapes to choose from, such as square, rectangular, circular, I-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, C-shaped, tubular, and so on.
Straight, curved, or tapered beams are also available.
Common Types Of Beams In Civil Engineering
A universal beam (UB) has an 'I' or 'H'-shaped cross-section and is available in several standard diameters. In the plane of the web, it is a very effective form for handling bending and shear stresses. Using initials to denote the kind of section is the conventional approach for describing the dimensions of a typical hot-rolled steel section. 'UB 203 x 133 x 25', for example, is a universal beam with nominal dimensions of 203 mm deep, 133 mm broad, and a weight of 25 kg/m.
Beam With Trusses
The addition of cables or rods to make a truss strengthens trussed beams.
Hip beams are ubiquitous in roofs, where they support additional load-bearing beams (or rafters) that branch away from them on either side and slope down to the eaves, forming the roof's tilted, inclined hip.
Beam Made Of Composite Materials
It's a structural component built from two different materials that are linked together to form a single unit.Composite beams include downstand beams, flitch beams, and shallow flooring.
Open Web Beam
For structures with lengthy spans and light-to-moderate loads, open web beams are widely employed.
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Beam With Latticework
Lattice beams are a type of open web beam that can span up to 15 meters and have a high depth-to-weight ratio. Plate girder lattice beams and tubular lattice beams are two types of lattice beams.
Bridge Made Of Beams
Beam bridges are simple bridges with a beam-like deck supported by abutments or piers on both ends.
Chilled beams are used to give cooling to buildings' interior regions. Chilled beams are often placed evenly over space's ceiling. Chilled water is pushed via copper cooling coils linked to aluminium fins, which convectively cool the air.
'A horizontal beam in a roof or roof truss that connects two rafters.'
For the construction of any building or structure, such as bridges, etc., steel beams are absolutely essential to transfer loads from the structure to the adjacent support.
Few people are aware of the various types of steel beams and their applications, making it difficult to predict when and why a structural engineer will select one type of beam over another. Steel beams come in a variety of sizes and shapes.
The following types of steel beams are commonly found.
- I beam, H beam, W and S section
- Plate Girders
- Gantry Girder / Beam
- Rectangular Hollow Section and Circular Hollow Section
- Composite Beam
Steel beams are fabricated primarily through hot rolling and welding.
Types of Loads on Beams
Beams frequently experience vertical loads, shear loads, and even horizontal loads. A beam is generally a horizontal member, and the loads acting on it are typically vertical loads. The types of loads on beams are categorized as follow :-
- Point load or concentrated load
- Uniformly distributed load
- Uniformly varying load
Point Load - The single force applied on a single point on a beam or frame component is known as a "point load.
Uniformly Distributed Load or Uniform Load - It is a load that is evenly distributed along a portion of a beam or frame component.
Uniformly Varying Load or Triangular Load - It refers to a load that is spread along a beam so that the rate of loading will not be constant, but will vary from one point to another along the distribution length of the beam.